Heavenly Vehicle. Seraphim. Guardian Angel.
Of all the symbols from ancient times it is the changeling serpent that seems to be connected to just about everything. Sometimes the healer and sometimes the daemon, sometimes masculine and sometimes feminine; the serpent has been cast into many roles like a good and evil twin emerging from one schizophrenic personality. The serpent has appeared in every culture as a major player from the bestower of civilization to the instigator of the fall of man. The following discussion will focus on the serpent as seraphim. The above illustration is based on one of the Egyptian concepts of the serpent. It represents the departed soul or the vehicle by which the soul is carried to Heaven. This concept also relates directly to the winged solar disk of Sumeria. There are several Egyptian depictions of winged serpents. One is named Wadjet for an Egyptian goddess. Another is a four winged serpent named Chnuphis but this is the Iaculi winged serpent. "These are creatures that are depicted usually on tombs of the departed in Egypt. Many believe they are a symbol of those who are gone and that they are some sort of watchers. Still others believe they are related to Neheb-ka, which is a snake-headed goddess of the Egyptians." (http://www.blackdrago.com/species.htm) As stated before the serpent came to represent many different things which includes an association with the soul. In doing this research I prefer to keep to what the Sumerians have written but the Egyptians were influenced by many Mesopotamian concepts and I think that it helps round out some of these ancient ideas from a different cultural perspective. This includes the winged solar disk which is one of the most recognizable symbols of ancient Egypt. The popular belief is that the Egyptian symbol of the winged solar disk predates the Sumerian winged disk. This is a good example of putting the cart before the horse. The Sumerian symbol is much more ancient and its memory extends back to the times of the arrival of the Caligastia 100 and could be besting the Egyptian representation by four to five hundred thousand years. In both cases the idea of connecting Heaven and serpent is very ancient.
"Seraphim literally means "burning ones" in the Hebrew (Sarap, 'to burn')."
"The uniqueness of these "standing seraphim" in the OT and their obviously perplexing character have apparently led few scholars to concern themselves with their identification and significance. However, there is sufficient linguistic and archaeological evidence to suggest that the seraphim are to be identified as winged serpents and are Egyptian symbols of sacral and regal sovereignty."
(http://www.jstor.org/pss/3262795 Winged Serpents in Isaiah's Inaugural Vision by Karen Randolph Joines)
"Outside of the initial reference to the Seraphim in the Book of Isaiah Chapter 6, there are several more occurrences of the word saraph that are not used in direct reference to angels or celestial beings. Due to the fact that these occurrences of the word are used in varying contextual settings both literally and metaphorically, there are still some conflicting views on what type of angels were actually being described in those first introductory verses. The consensus is obviously split between the noun and verb saraph, with some scholars having concluded that the Seraphim are "fiery winged serpents", while others only attribute the verb to them, meaning they were not serpents, but merely "fiery beings" radiating intense light."
"The Winged Globe is pre-eminently a Rosicrucian symbol, although the Illuminati may lay claim to it, and it may be admitted that it is of Egyptian origin. The Winged Globe is the symbol of the perfected soul making its flight back to the source of its creation in the Elysian fields beyond."
(Swinburne, Clymer, The Rosicrucians Their Teachings (Quakertown, PA.: The Philosophical Pub. Co.), 1923 p. 112. Quoted by Springmeier, p. 115. http://www.seanet.com/~raines/disc.html)
"The older Babylonian concept of the seraphim is of serpents, as the name implies. Among many peoples of antiquity serpents played an important part in myth and folk-lore. For instance, there were (sic) Tiamat in the Babylonian legend of the Creation, and the Uræus serpent in Egypt."
Also known as Agathodemon, this creature can be found in the mythologies of Greece and Rome. Agathos in Greek meant "Good" and Daimon meant "Divinity"1, and this creature was much like a guardian angel. Regarded as the "Good Divinity", Agathos Daimon was the guardian of the household or personal home, and in other accounts this creature guarded a person, hovering around them invisibly2. For this protection, the people within the home would leave and reserve at least one glass of wine for this creature in thanks. Agathos Daimon is identified with Hermes3.
The Oracle of Trophonios, who resided in Lebadeia, could only be visited by people who followed strict rituals. These rituals involved Agathos Daimon. This is perhaps the Greek equivalent to the guardian angel, but in serpent form; they were depicted as winged serpents and in other forms as a giant snake.4"
From the above quotes we can see that there is a long tradition (from Babylon but most certainly Sumeria and onwards) of the serpent being associated with the seraphim as protectors and carriers (guardian angels) of the soul. The Urantia Book has a number of things to say about the seraphim, death and the soul. The following quotes are but a fraction of what is on this subject in the Urantia Book:
"In the past ages on Urantia, these destiny guardians were about the only group of angels that had recognition. The planetary seraphim are indeed ministering spirits sent forth to do service for those who shall survive. These attending seraphim have functioned as the spiritual helpers of mortal man in all the great events of the past and the present. ...
Seraphim are the traditional angels of heaven; they are the ministering spirits who live so near you and do so much for you. They have ministered on Urantia since the earliest times of human intelligence." (Paper 113 Seraphic Guardians of Destiny p. 1241)
"Seraphim function as teachers of men by guiding the footsteps of the human personality into paths of new and progressive experiences. To accept the guidance of a seraphim rarely means attaining a life of ease. In following this leading you are sure to encounter, and if you have the courage, to traverse, the rugged hills of moral choosing and spiritual progress." (Paper 113 Seraphic Guardians of Destiny p. 1245)
"In the life of the flesh the intelligence of angels is not directly available to mortal men. They are not overlords or directors; they are simply guardians. The seraphim guard you; they do not seek directly to influence you; you must chart your own course, but these angels then act to make the best possible use of the course you have chosen." (Paper 113 Seraphic Guardians of Destiny p. 1246)
"Your conventional idea of angels has been derived in the following way:
During moments just prior to physical death a reflective phenomenon sometimes occurs in the human mind, and this dimming consciousness seems to visualize something of the form of the attending angel, and this is immediately translated into terms of the habitual concept of angels held in that individual's mind." (Paper 39 The Seraphic Hosts p. 438)
I have been told by a nurse who has worked in nursing homes and hospice that she has seen individuals while lying in bed alone reaching up with arms extended to something unseen. Very shortly thereafter that individual passes on. This is not an uncommon experience at all. In comforting the relatives of the deceased she would say, "We do not die alone." And this story was completely voluntary and on my part unexpected.
One last and maybe the most extraordinary quote (and I am sure unbelievable for some) is how wings became identified with angels. I must preface this first with Isaiah's (6:1–3) description of his vision of the seraphim:
"CHAPTER 6 KJV3 And one cried unto another, and said, Holy, holy, holy, is the lord of hosts: the whole earth is full of his glory."
In the year that king Uzziah died I saw also the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, and his train filled the temple.
2 Above it stood the seraphim: each one had six wings; with twain he covered his face, and with twain he covered his feet, and with twain he did fly.
"The erroneous idea that angels possess wings is not wholly due to olden notions that they must have wings to fly through the air. Human beings have sometimes been permitted to observe seraphim that were being prepared for transport service, and the traditions of these experiences have largely determined the Urantian concept of angels. In observing a transport seraphim being made ready to receive a passenger for interplanetary transit, there may be seen what apparently double sets of wings extending from the head to the foot of the angel. In reality these wings are energy insulators - friction shields.
In the above painting by the Italian artist Giotto is the traditional depiction of the seraphim. Two wings to cover the face, two wings to cover the feet and two wings by which to fly. This is, of course, directly based on Isaiah's description above. The illuminated manuscript shows a pair of seraphim at the foot of the throne and seraphim usually work in pairs. Also the nimbus or halo is shown of which one meaning is eternal life. While reviewing what the Urantia Book had to say about these seraphim I was struck by these old images of what we today would consider an unseen entity - the seraphim - and what the Book has to say about this subject. The following is that extraordinary quote:
And now, under the influence of the transformers and the transmitters, a strange metamorphosis begins as the seraphim is made ready to swing into the energy currents of the universe circuits. To outward appearance the seraphim grows pointed at both ends and becomes so enshrouded in a queer light of amber hue that very soon it is impossible to distinguish the enseraphimed personality."
(Paper 39 The Seraphic Hosts p. 438)
So the six winged seraphim as painted by Giotto and from the manuscript has two wings at the head, two wings down to the feet covering the body and the necessary two wings as the ancients believed to fly. These seraphim are also painted in a "fiery" red. In most representations of the seraphim here and elsewhere only the head is visible and therefore is not unlike the winged disk of Sumeria. Look closely at these angels and you will see all the elements that the Urantia Book uses to describe these transport seraphim: wings that cover the body from head to foot, pointed at both ends and "radiating intense light". And it was these experiences that gave birth to the descriptions of angels with wings, "a sharp pointed object" and winged fiery serpents.
The first three images are from an earlier page and are repeated here for comparison to the next two images of the seraphim and including as well the two others above. The central hub in the popular opinion is overwhelmingly considered a sun disk. I am not so sure. I always thought it to be a container of some sort but I am beginning to think about it differently due to examining images of the six winged seraphim. If you look at various images of this winged disk they have either the torus surround and/or a central dot or hub with the disk itself. This is not the sun. The ancients used descriptions that had a celestial meaning such as shining, bright and burning. But they also knew the difference between a star and a goddess named after a star by using a determinative symbol. The hub is central to the images of the winged disk. Now, the images from the medieval and Byzantine all display the face of the seraphim. In the second to the last picture we have a face surrounded by wings and no body. But they almost all have the face in the center of the image with the nimbus. The last image is from the Hagia Sophia and is one of four seraphim. Notice the metal mask over the face which has been there for 160 years and only in mid 2009 did restoration uncover the face beneath the mask. This all leads back to the winged disk. The Sumerian, Babylonian, Egyptian and other winged disks are all seraphim. These later designs from the middle ages for the seraphim are based on Isaiah's account and place the face in the center much like the more ancient depictions of the seraphim. So the hub is not the sun but the "face" of the celestial being or an abstract representation of the body itself. Besides the later nimbus the early renderings of the seraphim as the first images show includes the folding panels of the wings and the triangular pieces which are not "rocket flare" but luminescence, the intense and burning light as described by the ancients. Phew.
From the Stele of the Revealing in the Boulaq Museum in Cairo comes the paraphrased translation by Aleister Crowley:
By Bes-na-Maut my breast I beat;
By wise Ta-Nech I weave my spell.
Show thy star-splendour, O Nuit!
Bid me within thine House to dwell,
O winged snake of light, Hadit!
Abide with me, Ra-Hoor-Khuit!
[Liber AL III:38]
Hadit as the winged disk
As a matter of record, I am no fan of Aleister Crowley. However his translation of the Stele is certainly interesting but does not follow what an Egyptologist has translated. Why Crowley was inspired to use the phrase "winged snake of light" may be due to his familiarity and deep understanding of Egyptian symbolism or it is poetic license. Still, why his translation differs as much as it does from others remains a question. Given the above statements of seraphim radiating light, he was closer to the truth than even he could have ever imagined.
Both translations in full can be found on the Tamesa Oasis web site.
First Theory on the Din.Gir and Solar Winged Disk
Myth or Reality?
"Somewhere between Heaven and Hell
A soul knows where its been.
I want to feel my spirit lifted up
And catch my breath again."
Crosby and Nash Lay Me Down
Third and Final Theory on the Seraphim as the Winged Disk
|After staring at the
image of the winged disk for
sometime and not thinking of anything in particular - it hit me. It was
so obvious that I could hardly believe I had missed it. The "feet" are
not feet. These lower appendages are
Looking face on to this ancient symbol you can see that it is in fact
the deity bird and the serpent in one symbol. The lower "legs and feet"
represent the sinuous nature of the serpent. In Persia this
serpent is shown as both curling and wavy. The bird-like feet in some
of the symbols are more
than likely the open mouth head of the serpent which is represented by
the uraei in Egyptian imagery. These
uraei represent the "fiery eyes of Re" that
was believed to spit fire and are therefore fiery serpents. And
so the outstretched wings and tail feathers are
the bird because seraphim fly through the air. The thin wavy band
beneath the bird is the serpent because the seraphim exhibit in some
form a serpentine-like appearance and the so called disk itself is the
Since this symbol is found only in the sky the seraphim is in this
regards the sharp pointed object. The central circle of the hub is the
pointed part of the cylinder. It is to signify the three dimensional
pointed conical shape of the seraphim. The top bar is I think a hatch
opening to signify that souls (and others) are enseraphimed within for
their interplanetary travel. The last item is the torus which is quite
pronounced in some of the depictions. My speculation is that the torus
represents the "envelope" which forms around the body in preparation
for flight. This is because how closely the serpent and the torus are
related. In many reliefs, seals and other art the serpent is directly
connected to the torus as if to say they are one and the same. Each
part has a story to tell. These
six parts are the pneumonic devices
- visual clues - to help remember what it is, what it does, where it
comes from, its divinity and
its relationship to the gods and man.
Time to Pull It All Together
The first is the Din.Gir where we can see left to right: luminescence, cylinder shape, wings and apart from the descriptive elements: the seraphim, the Gir, that sharp pointed object (which it does become). Very abstract but most of the main pieces are there. At some point the Sumerian descriptive elements do fall away leaving the seraphim to its own and becomes much more human looking per Isaiah's description.
One of the earliest icons has the four curving "wings", the luminescence, the torus and the hub that is the seraphim. In some cases the torus is much emphasized indicating it is something special and is to be understood as part of the seraphim. The "wings" are curved and connected to the torus because the ancients are telling us that the "wings" are serpentine. It is in the sky. This symbol became the icon of Utu/Shamash.
The Babylonian/Persian winged disk. This is the graphic that is the most revealing of the bird and serpent. If you look closely at the serpent you will see the head to the left and the curling of the tail to the right. This icon has the outstretched bird, the serpent, the torus and the hub. This particular winged disk is from Susa in the land once called Elam. It is also where the prophet Daniel lived for a period of time at about 600 BC.
The Assyrian winged disk. Resembles the Babylonian version except that Ashur, the Assyrian national god, is shown within the hub itself. I do not think it is a simple combining of two differing elements. Putting the god inside the hub has a deep religious purpose. This is the god in his Boat of Heaven much like Inanna who also travels in her Boat of Heaven.
"Inanna gathered all the me.
The me were placed in the Boat of Heaven.
The Boat of Heaven, with the holy me,The Egyptians had their own Boat of Heaven for their sun god Atum-Re. It goes by various names such as the Solar Boat, Sun Boat, Solar Barque, Solar Ship and such. Depending where he is in his trip across the sky or in the underworld different symbols accompany him. The shape of the boat to the left is the most common. In some instances mortal souls also ride on his ship.
was pushed off from the quay."
From the Sumerian myth Inanna and the God of Wisdom
A second Assyrian winged disk floating above the Tree of Life. The serpent is very long and wavy, much more so than in most renderings. Notice that the serpent is grasped by the two attending genii. This same posture can be found in the Syrian reliefs most notably from Tell Halaf. I do not know, nor can I guess, at what this all means.
The Faravahar from Persia and is the main holy symbol of Zoroastrianism. As you can see the Assyrian and Persian "Boats of Heaven" are almost identical. In this representation the serpent looks like a ribbon but still keeps its wavy serpentine shape and a highly stylized open mouth. In both of these images the curved bar above the hub is evident. Other renditions of the Faravahar have the serpent curled at the ends rather than a ribbon which is closer to the Babylonian representation.
"The Egyptians believed that their sun-god Ra, traveling in his daily orbit, was actually the pilot of the "Boat of Heaven" which navigated the Celestial Sea. ... The Egyptians believed that they too would make this journey upon the Boat of Ra after their death, to be judged by Osiris in the underworld. In fact the priests of Egypt actually built a life-sized replica of this boat, which they would drag around the walls of the city in a daily ritual meant to imitate the revolutions of the Sun. This boat was actually discovered by archaeologists in 1954, buried next to the Great Pyramid at Giza." (http://quintessentialpublications.com/twyman/?page_id=22)
The above statement about a Celestial Sea is referring to the infinite cosmic ocean which is held back by the firmament. That is why the winged disk is the Boat of Heaven. It is the heavenly ship which sails across the firmament along with the moon, stars and planets. It is the ship of the gods but also the ship which ferries the souls of men and women to Heaven.
If there was any question about the Egyptian sun-god needing a Boat of Heaven to travel upon the firmament then the illustration to the left should remove all doubt. This rendering shows the sun-god about to rise as the morning sun on his serpent ship. In the above picture the sun-god is in a more familiar looking sun boat. Although these two boats look quite different, they are the same thing - a Boat of Heaven with this drawing representing the winged serpent in a more iconic way.
So far this discussion has focused on the winged serpent as seraphim and as the Boat of Heaven. Really being only differing aspects of the same thing these show mainly two wings which is the symbol of a bird in flight. But the ancients knew that the seraphim had four wing as depicted in the many four winged gods and genii. Later the Medieval paintings added the extra two wings to fly but this is probably a continuation of the concept from much more ancient ideas. In Persia Cyrus-as-seraphim had six wings. Other celestial figures from the same time period in Persia had four wings in the usual two up and two down position. All four winged gods, kings and celestials were shown the same way, two wings at the head and two wings for the body. We can put Cyrus on the time line at about 550 BC and his empire did include Palestine, Babylon, Anatolia, Egypt and more. Isaiah is located at about 700 BC.
The description by Isaiah includes the four wings which were used to portray celestials and kings as divine plus the two needed to fly. Apparently the other four wings were not used for flight but to protect and to "cover the body" from head to foot. This is one of those obvious things no one seems to mention. The placement of the face is in the middle of the body (not being anatomically correct) echoes the much more ancient understanding of how the seraphim should be rendered. As you can see there are the four wings covering the body (plus the two to fly), the red luminescence and the face of the seraphim. If you were to rotate these four wings covering the body into a horizontal position so that the top tips would face you then the seraphim would resemble the characteristic winged disk we are so familiar with.
Just as the Serpent and the Bird are forever linked to one another so is the winged disk, the seraphim, to the Tree of Life. Like the many stories in this website it all goes back to the Sumerians the last of the Andites. The stories of the gods, Van and the Lucifer Rebellion and Adam and Eve are woven into this ancient and cosmic story. Bits and pieces emerge within different cultures but the foundation legend is still there. As one example the Mayas did have a Tree of Life and associated with this tree was the Principal Deity Bird, Serpent Bird or also called the Celestial Bird that lived at the top of this sacred tree. It goes to show you how wrong archaeologists can be. The winged disk above the Tree of Life or as its Egyptian incarnation as the winged disk is not solar and certainly not associated with an eclipse. It is not even a solar winged disk. It is a seraphim, a religious symbol that has come from the Paleolithic memory, guarded and maintained by shaman and priest alike and perpetuated by legend, art and ritual for millenniums. It is only with the coming of the secular age that these ancient memories have been degraded by our professionals into folklore.
JRR Tolkien in the Lord of the Rings said it best:
"...and somethings that should have not been forgotton were lost.
History became legend, legend became myth..."
The Soul, the Thought Adjuster and the Free Will Choice to Become Eternal
"In ancient Egypt, Dr. Wegner noted, the human entity has separate components. The body is important, and the elite went to great expense to mummify and entomb it for eternity. In death, though, a life force or spirit known as ka was immortal, and a soul known as ba, which was linked to personal attributes, fled the body after death."
(http://tigrepelvar2.wordpress.com/2008/11/ By John Noble Wilford (NYT, November 18, 2008))
I find this statement - because it is such an ancient religious concept - even more compelling then the winged disk-as-seraphim. Readers who are familiar with the Urantia Book will see in this extremely old Egyptian belief a counter part to it within the Book. The Urantia Book also says that there are two parts which survive death. The ka which the Egyptians considered immortal is not unlike the Thought Adjuster, your spirit identity, which is pure spirit and immortal, a prepersonal fragment of God. The ba the Egyptian concept of the soul which "fled the body" is also what the Book says in that your soul does leave the body at death and is taken and this, your human identity, is guarded by the seraphim.
Some quotes from the Urantia Book on this subject:
The Thought Adjuster"Though there are diverse opinions regarding the mode of the bestowal of Thought Adjusters, there exists no such differences concerning their origin; all agree that they proceed direct from the Universal Father, the First Source and Center. They are not created beings; they are fragmentized entities constituting the factual presence of the infinite God." (Paper 107 Origin and Nature of Thought Adjusters p. 1177)
"That which comes from the Father is like the Father eternal, and this is just as true of personality, which God gives by his own freewill choice, as it is of the divine Thought Adjuster, an actual fragment of God." (Paper 112 Personality Survival p. 1232)
"And it is not so much what mind comprehends as what mind desires to comprehend that insures survival; it is not so much what the mind is like as what mind is striving to be like that constitutes spirit identification." ( Paper 111 The Adjuster and the Soul p. 1216-17)
"The Adjuster is man's eternity possibility; man is the Adjuster's personality possibility. Your individual Adjusters work to spiritize you in the hope of eternalizing your temporal identity." ( Paper 107 Origin and Nature of Thought Adjusters p. 1182)
"Men have long believed that there is something growing within the human nature, something vital that is destined to endure beyond the short span of temporal life." (Paper 111 The Adjuster and the Soul p. 1215)
"There is something real, something of human evolution, something additional to the Mystery Monitor, which survives death. This newly appearing entity is the soul, and it survives the death of both your physical body and your material mind. This entity is the conjoint child of the combined life and efforts of the human you in liaison with the divine you, the Adjuster." (Paper 112 Personality Survival p. 1234)
"Ignorance alone can never prevent survival; neither can confusional doubts nor fearful uncertainty. Only conscious resistance to the Adjuster's leading can prevent the survival of the evolving immortal soul." (Paper 110 Relation of Adjusters to Individuals p. 1204)
"No human being will ever be spiritualized by a divine Monitor against his will; survival is a gift of the Gods which must be desired by the creatures of time." (Paper 110 Relation of Adjusters to Individuals p. 1204)
"The Adjuster is truly the path to Paradise, but man himself must persue that path by his own deciding, his freewill choosing." (Paper 112 Personality Survival p. 1232)
"Mortal identity is a transient time-life condition in the universe; it is real only in so far as the personality elects to become a continuing universe phenomenon." (Paper 112 Personality Survival p. 1232)
"Peace in this life, survival in death, perfection in the next life, service in eternity – all these are achieved (in spirit) now when the creature personality consents – chooses – to subject the creature will to the Father's will. And already has the Father chosen to make a fragment of himself subject to the will of the creature personality." (Paper 111 The Adjuster and the Soul p. 1221)
"The highest evidence of the reality and efficacy of religion consists in the fact of human experience; namely, that man, naturally fearful and suspicious, innately endowed with a strong instinct of self-preservation and craving survival after death, is willing fully to trust the deepest interests of his present and future to the keeping and direction of that power and person designated by his faith as God. That is the one central truth of all religion. As to what that power or person requires of man in return for this watchcare and final salvation, no two religions agree; in fact, they all more or less disagree." (Paper 102 The Foundations of Religious Faith p.1127)
"Modern man is confronted with the task of making more readjustments of human values in one generation than have ben made in two thousand years. And this all influences the social attitude toward religion, for religion is a way of living as well as a technique of thinking." (Paper 92 The Later Evolution of Religion p. 1013)
"Religious experience is the spiritual content of religion." (Paper 103 The Reality of Religious Experience p. 1140)
"It is literally true, 'Human things must be known in order to be loved, but divine things must be loved in order to be known.'" (Paper 102 The Foundations of Religious Faith p.1118)
"Spirituality becomes at once the indicator of one's nearness to God and the measure of one's usefulness to fellow beings. Spirituality enhances the ability to discover the beauty in things, recognize truth in meanings, and discover goodness in values." (Paper 100 Religion in Human Experience p. 1096)
"The Father's love can become real to mortal man only by passing through that man's personality as he in turn bestows this love upon his fellows." (Paper 117 God the Supreme p. 1289)
"But the great problem of religious living consists in the task of unifying the soul powers of the personality by the dominance of LOVE. Health, mental efficiency, and happiness arise from the unification of physical systems, mind systems, and spirit systems. Of health and sanity man understands much, but of happiness he has truly realized very little. The highest happiness is indissolubly linked with spiritual progress. Spiritual growth yields lasting joy, peace which passes all understanding." (Paper 100 Religion in Human Experience p. 1098)
"With God the Father, sonship is the great relationship.
With God the Supreme, achievement is the prerequisite – one must do something as well as be something."
"God is much, much more than a Father, but the Father is man's highest concept of God;"
(Paper 115 The Supreme Being p. 1260)
"And here is mystery: The more closely man approaches God through love, the greater the reality – actuality – of that man.
The more man withdraws from God, the more nearly he approaches nonreality – cessation of existence.
When man consecrates his will to the doing of the Father's will,
when man gives God all that he has, then does God make that man more than he is."
(Paper 117 God the Supreme p. 1285)
The Tree of Life and the Ancients
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