These last three baetyl coins

The Tree of Life

Tree of Life
Andites. Inanna. Maya.

The Tree of Life is one of the most pervasive and enduring legends in the history of religion. It was a real tree that grew on the planet millenniums ago. It's history is pan-cultural. Belief in it's reality spans from deep within the stone age to the present. It has always been associated with divinity and immortality. It was the axis mundi otherwise known as the world tree to the cultures of that time. Along with the Tree of Life is the Earth Goddess. The Earth Goddess is directly associated with the Tree of Life. Both are extremely potent symbols and both are embedded within the evolving cultures of early man which has their roots in the Andite culture. A third symbol associated with the Tree of Life is Van known to the Sumerians as Enki. This is more than a story of a tree, a goddess and an immortal. It is of a movement of people, language and culture and how we came to be. Through all the twists and turns, ebbs and flows, this is our forgotten history, and it starts a long time ago.

If you have arrived to this web page first before reading any of the others pages on this site then it would be helpful to read the introduction which has a link at the bottom of this page. The introduction will give you a short background of information to help you understand what this web site is based on and give you a brief overview of its contents. From there is a link back to this page. More information on the Tree of Life is available in The Tree of Life and the Ancients page. For a much more expanded explanation go to The First Legend Introduction.
There is also a link to it at the bottom of this page.

Our story begins with the Lucifer Rebellion and the transporting of the Tree of Life to a high mountainous region by Van the leader of the loyalists. This region would become to be named Afghanistan.  So ancient is the beginning of this story that we have no written record of these events.  Or do we? It took a long long time to be written but it's there. It took the coming of the Andites and the culture they created to reveal this incredible legend. The Andites are legendary in their own right being from the bloodline of Adam and Eve and the Nodite remnants of the original fallen. And it is most appropriate that part of this story starts here in the wilds of Central Asia. For the Andites have the true first human aboriginal blood from creatures that looked upon the world with the first human eyes knowing they were different from all others. These first humans were Homo erectus by which the Urantia Book names them as the Andonites. Very near this place of epical significance is the beginning of the human race, but that is another story.

So, our story starts with the Andites as a pure Mesopotamian story. I wish I could say the Adamites and the Nodites only lived in what would later become Sumeria but nothing's that simple. Actually, one of Adam and Eve's sons - Adamson a pure line Adamite - met and married one of the last pure Nodite women and founded what I call the third Garden of Eden. This "third Eden" was located in the foothills of the Kopet Dagh where Van had lived all those millennia. Van's headquarters are also west of Bactria namesake to the BMAC the Bactria Margianna Archaeological Complex, the Oxus civilization and west of the future Indus Valley civilization. This area also became a hub for the silk road. A great location for the the dispersal of culture south into India, east into China and west into future Europe. The Urantia Book defines these people as a race which have been long absorbed to the various peoples of today. Too bad. They were humorous, artistic, adventurous, inventive and musical. They gave us everything they had. They gave us civilization.

Andites 25,000 BCThe Birth of the Andites
"The earliest Andite peoples took origin in the regions adjacent to Mesopotamia more than twenty-five thousand years ago and consisted of a blend of Adamites and Nodites." (Urantia Book p. 871)
The Andites became a people in the area, mostly mountainous, that surrounds Mesopotamia.
They are a mixture of three bloodlines, the Adamic, Nodite and indigenous natives and were the newest race on the planet. When they started migrating it was first to the east and was the start of a vast movement that would last for almost twelve thousand years.

The Kopet Dagh, the location of the "3rd Eden", was the home of Adamson and Ratta. This is a secondary location for the earliest eastern and northern expansion of the Andites. These pre-date the Mesopotamian Andites by about 15,000 years being of the extended family of Adamson and Ratta. This map has the Andites along the Oxus River and about the Aral Sea, a huge inland fresh water lake which would have invited any number of animals. The Andites as a whole are one of the most important races (unknown to moderns) to have an impact on civilization. As you can see by the map their main origin was on the margins of Mesopotamia. To the west was the Levantine corridor, to the north they lived in northern Iraq and Syria and to the east the Zagros mountains. For an in depth explanation of who the Andites are see page The First Legend Introduction. The link is at the bottom of this page.

Andites 15,000 BCSecond Migration of the Andites
It was about 15,000 B.C. when a great renaissance of the Garden culture was carried out to Eurasia. At this time a first wave of hunter gatherer
Andites had migrated east as far as the Tarmin Basin making contact with the Chinese. Some were heading north along the Caspian to enter Europe. And others drifted south to finally enter India. These were not warrior type conquests but rather more based on resettlement and trade.
"Later on, when the migrating Adamites and Nodites entered the then fertile regions of Turkestan [now Turkmenistan], they soon blended with the superior inhabitants, and the resultant race mixture extended the Andite type northward." (Urantia Book p. 871-2) "From Mesopotamia through Sinkiang [now known as the Tarmin Basin] the Andite culture was dominant, and the steady migration toward Europe was continuously offset by new arrivals from Mesopotamia. ...The civilization of Turkestan was constantly being revived and refreshed by the newcomers from Mesopotamia, especially by the later Andite calverymen. The so-called Aryan mother tongue was in the process of formation in the highlands of Turkestan; it was a blend of the Andonic dialect of that region with the language of the Adamsonites and later Andites. Many modern languages are derived from this early speech of these central Asian tribes who conquered Europe, India, and the upper stretches of the Mesopotamian plains. This ancient language gave the Occidental tongues all of that similarity which is called Aryan." (Urantia Book p. 872) In this age of political correctness this tongue is now called Indo-European.

Andites 8,000 BC
Last Migrations of the Andites
"By 12,000 B.C. three quarters of the Andite stock of the world was resident in northern and eastern Europe, and when the later and final exodus from Mesopotamia took place, sixty-five per cent of these last waves of emigration entered Europe." (Urantia Book p. 872-3)
"The migratory conquests of the Andites continued on down to their final dispersions, from 8000 to 6000 B.C....They were skillfull domesticators of animals and expert agriculturists. For the time being, at least, their presence usually improved the religious beliefs and moral practices of the older races." (Urantia Book p.873)

These final migrations from Mesopotamia went north in their largest number via the Caspian sea. Of this northern trek a small number went east into the Tarmin Basin with another small group went east into today's Iran. Yet another small group went southwest to Egypt. Only five per cent remained in the southern most part of Mesopotamia but these culturally superior Andites would become the seed of the later appearing Sumerians. These were the last of the Andite migrations for at about 8,000 BC a drough arose in Central Asia and the Andites were dispersed from it. Some came back to northern Mesopotamia others headed into Europe, Iran, Egypt and India.

It should be remembered when looking at these maps that as the Andites spread out from Mesopotamia, that early man
collectively was already there having had over half a million years to populate these lands. There was a continual movement of Andites from Mesopotamia and all evidences of civilization were carried from the epicenter of the Garden of Eden and Nodite culture. In these migrating waves were the Sethite priests who were taught by Seth one of the sons of Adam and Eve. I think it would be fair to attribute an influence of these fables, gods and history of Eden to these Sethite priests. So Andite culture was being overlaid atop the old Paleolithic stone age culture, uplifting and advancing it in preparation for the coming of civilization.  And the Andite's inventiveness did not halt until after civilization appeared and they were quietly absorbed into the many faces of mankind. With the passing of the Andites no longer would the bloodline of the Adamites and Nodites be available to up step the peoples of the planet.

(Chick here to return to First Legend page.)

Map 5 locations for Tree of LifeLocations of the Tree of Life
The image to the left shows the five locations where the Tree of Life may have grew. The first is in the then dry Persian Gulf south of what would become Mesopotamia. It is where the celestials first touched down. It was here they built the first city of Dalamatia that the Andites would later build Dilmun in remembrance. The Tree of Life was brought to the planet with the prince’s arrival. The fruit of the tree was sustenance for the 100 materialized members and the 100 modified Andonites. When eaten it could extend indefinitely their mortal existence. When the Lucifer rebellion broke out, loyal cherubim and seraphim took possession of it and allowed only the loyalist to partake of its fruit and leaves. When Van and Amadon left for the northern part of Afghanistan, "the highlands west of India" they took the tree, or most likely a cutting, with them and began to guard it for the next 150,000 years. But they did not stay in this part of southeastern Central Asia. At some point they moved to a new location near Lake Van. Eventually Van and Amadon moved to his headquarters in the Kopet Dagh.
With the coming of Adam and Eve the Tree was finally planted in the first Garden of Eden where it would be destroyed after the Adamic couple left for the second garden. Eventually the entire Edenic peninsula was destroyed by a major earthquake that shook the entire region and was pulled under the flooding waters of the Mediterranean basin.

 "Adamson was among that group of children of Adam and Eve who elected to remain on earth with their father and mother. Now this eldest son of Adam had often heard from Van and Amadon the story of their highland home in the north, and sometime after the establishment of the second garden he determined to go in search of this land of his youthful dreams...
  A company of twenty-seven followed Adamson northward in quest of these people of his childhood fantasies. In a little over three years Adamson's party actually found the object of their adventure, and among these people he discovered a wonderful and beautiful woman, twenty years old, who claimed to be the last pure-line descendant of the Prince's staff. This woman, Ratta, said that her ancestors were all descendants of two of the fallen staff of the Prince." (Urantia Book p. 861)

"The Adamonites maintained a high culture for almost seven thousand years from the times of Adamson and Ratta. Later on they became admixed with the neighboring Nodites and Andonites and were also included among the "mighty men of old." And some of the advances of that age persisted to become a latent part of the cultural potential which later blossomed into European civilization.
   This center of civilization was situated in the region east of the southern end of the Caspian Sea, near the Kopet Dagh. A short way up in the foothills of Turkestan are the vestiges of what was onetime the Adamsonite headquarters of the violet race." (Urantia Book p. 862)

So, much later the tree would finally be replanted from the Kopet Dagh area to the peninsula where the first Garden of Eden was located. It took only 105 years for the Garden's demise. After the default, Adam and Eve were not allowed to carry the tree to the second garden. The tree was now unprotected at this time and burned by Nodites warring among themselves. Since the system circuits were now suspended, they were unable to benefit from the age defying properties of its fruit. With this destruction of the Tree of Life no longer would any personality be able to suspend the natural course of mortal existence. Scholars suspect that the Garden of Eden was located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. That is partially correct. It was the location of the second Garden that Adam and Eve created by the sweat of their brow after their default. Because of close locations of these three epical events - the arrival of celestials, the Lucifer rebellion and the establishment of the second Garden - and the enormous time frame in which they transpired, these legends became what I call a composite legend.  

But the Tree of Life would live on in legend. Its history was part of Andite culture that spread around the world. Even the Mother Earth Goddess and the serpent survived. That is quite remarkable considering the length of time these events took place. Even now in the twenty first century these three icons from our distant past are still common knowledge.

Trypillian goddessTrypillian Tree of Lifeserpent vaseArt, Language and Culture
One of the earliest settlements of mankind is the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture in Moldova, Romania and the Ukraine (the earliest we know of is Catalhoyuk, southern Turkey 6200-5700 BC). Located northwest of the Black Sea this area is now being referred to as part of the Old Europe dating back to 5500 BC. This term Old Europe was coined by archaeologist Marija Gimbutas and is synonymous with Neolithic Europe and Pre-Indo-European. Among artifacts unearthed are images of the Tree of Life and the ever pervasive figurines of the Earth Mother. The image of the Tree of Life along with others from the ancient Neolithic are still a part of traditional folk art in this region today. Click on bowl for a larger image.

There are two important things about this culture that marks it as Andite. First is evidence of the domestication of the horse. The Urantia Book states that the Andites were the first to do so. Second are the many goddess figurines found buried through out this region. The Urantia Book also states that the Andites worshiped the Mother Earth goddess. They had a crude and elementary system writing. At least by our standards. Linguists have determined that there are some words related to Sumerian although these early scripts are open to speculation. This script maybe related to the Danube script which at this point is not very well understood.
Both of these assumptions are most likely correct. It should be remembered that the neighboring Hungarians believe that they too are related to the Sumerians and that the Hungarian language helped decode and translated the cuneiform tablets. The C-T culture was experimenting with agriculture and metal, copper in particular.  "Copper metallurgy was first introduced into east central Europe by 5500 BC, and clearly has a long and relatively unknown pedigree amongst the Old European homelands north of the Black Sea. Linguistically the vocabulary of metallurgy provides some evidence of the antiquity of smelting tradition. Where a root word exists in multiple languages, it is generally accepted as evidence of its antiquity." ( © Keith Squires 2005)

The worship of the Great Goddess, the Earth Mother, was by the time of the Neolithic becoming dominated by the male gods. In Sumeria the goddess became Inanna and remained a potent figure of worship and power. The veneration of the Tree of Life continued on finding expression in both stone reliefs and palatial murals. As these Andites migrated out from the alluvial plains of the Tigris and Euphrates every culture that grew up in their wake echoed their reverence for the Tree of Life. The four above Venuses are Gravettian named after a region in France. This culture from 28,000 to 22,000 BC is Upper Paleolithic which includes much of central Europe and Russia. These four are named from left to right: Venus of  Vestonice  Dolni (Czech Republic), Venus of Willendorf (Vienna, Austria), Venus of Lespugue (France) and the Venus of Laussel (Dordogne, France). All date to after the establishment of Eden.

Golbeki Tepe goddessHalaf goddessSumerian goddessTo the far left the Goddess from Gobleki Tepe (east of 
Catalhoyuk) Anatolia 9,000 B.C.
Middle the Goddess from the Halaf period Mesopotamia 7,000 B.C.
To the near left the Goddess from Sumeria, Inanna "Queen of Heaven" 3,000 B.C.

For more information on these sacred statuettes see page The Venus Cult.

Tree of Life BabylonianSumerian Tree of LifeTree of Life from Urartu To the far left the Babylonian Tree of Life in stone relief  Palm style
Middle a Sumerian cylinder impression with genii, a god (or goddess), Tree of Life, serpent and the solar winged disk.
To the immediate left the Urartian Tree of Life with attending genii picking the fruit. Click on the image for a larger view.

Assyrian Tree of LifePalm Style leafAssyrian Tree of Life with two geniis and King Ashurnasirpal.
From the Northwest palace at Nimrud. Click on image for a larger view.

This smaller tan illustration is a detail of one of the leafs or fruit in the Palm style.

The Vanites were the ancestors of the Assyrians (Urantia Book p. 860) whose main religious symbol was the Tree of Life. The civilization of Urartu located in Turkey at Lake Van (highlands of Armenia) made many images of the two genii picking the fruit of the Tree of Life. The Sumerians, of course, had a very strong connection to the Tree of Life as well. The Tree of Life also known as the “sacred tree” made its way into Babylonian and Assyrian religious beliefs and related cultures of the region. It comes as no surprise that the tree would have such a large impact on the history of the region. It sustained the gods and grew for about 450,000 years. The Babylonians who conquered Akkad were also of Andite ancestry and assimilated the Sumerian culture and language. The empires of Assyria and Babylon were very close on the time line. The old Babylon empire was from 2000-1600 BC and the Assyrian empire was from about 2000-612 BC. 

"The oldest name of Babylon, Tin-tir-ki, meant ‘the place of the tree of life’.
• The name Euphrates was applied to the rope of the world, to the encircling river of the snake god of the tree of life, to the heavenly river which surrounds the earth (Sumerian)."

"The Tree of Life was a Babylonian concept, and as represented in carvings it does not look particularly like a tree at all. It was shown as a series of leafy rosettes, arranged and construction in a strange [lattice] pattern...To the Babylonians, it was a tree with magical fruit, which could only be picked by the gods. Dire consequences befell any mortal who dared to pluck form its. The tree found its way into the Hebrew legend of Adam and Eve...which is heavily loaded with allusions of the Ancient of Days. Recent works on the Kabbalah make extensive use of this tree. Ten parts or attributes of the Ancient of Days are identified with ten of the rosettes..."
- George Sassoon and Rodney Dale, The Manna Machine

The location of Babylon is in the general area of where the second Garden of Eden was situated but the Tree of Life never actually grew there. This is a clear example of how the legends of the first and second gardens became blended over time. 

Inanna with scepterKingship, Inanna and the Tree of Life
"When the kingship was lowered from heaven, the kingship was in Eridu" so says the Sumerian King List. This is the root of divine rule. Mesopotamian kings displayed their divine inheritance through symbols the most telling being the branch from the Tree of Life. It all begins with Inanna. There is no doubt of Inanna's connection to the Tree of Life. To the far left she is shown holding a branch from the Tree of Life. This may be the origin of the scepter. In the Sumerian tale of  Inanna and Enki  Inanna travels to Eridu and visits with Enki. During her stay they drink beer together and during this time Enki gives her the mes (pronounced may) which in this case includes the throne of kingship and kingship itself. It became tradition that the king be ritually married to Inanna and earn his divine right to rule. Thus we have the trapping of power derived from Inanna in the symbolism of the Tree of Life. Below are some examples of this symbolism.

fruit 1fruit 2fruit 3fruit 4fruit 5Every one of these images is of a king holding the symbol of the Tree of Life by which he rules by divine right. The most popular is the three branch style but all convey the same message. All kings  also wear the bracelet with the rosette on it's band which is another symbol for Inanna.

In the epic Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta the king of
Uruk speaks to his messenger who he is sending to Aratta:
"Messenger, speak to the lord of Aratta and say to him: "The base of my sceptre is the divine power of magnificence. Its crown provides a protective shade over Kulaba; under its spreading branches holy Inana refreshes herself in the shrine E-ana. Let him snap off a splinter from it and hold that in his hand; let him hold it in his hand like a string of cornelian beads, a string of lapis lazuli beads. Let the lord of Aratta bring that before me." So say to him." (lines 339--346) We see written here the connection of Inanna's scepter to the Tree of Life. The scepter is the Tree of Life with its metaphor of spreading branches and thus its divine power.

The goddess Inanna/Ishtar as Eve
One of the most powerful concepts to come out of Mesopotamia was that of divine kingship. The earliest records indicate that "Kingship descended from heaven" and it was the Anunnaki that claimed ruler ship over mankind and bestowed divinity upon the mortal kings of the realm. However, the goddess Inanna is also intimately involved with the bestowal of kingship. The true origin of Inanna is not known by historians but she  (as this site believes) is based on the persona of Eve. Why Eve? Adam and Eve were very powerful leaders in the preliterate world. They were the moving force in ancient Mesopotamia and their influence
spread throughout the region and out to the ancient world. Another possible reason has to do with Cain. That story can be found on page Cain. Inanna is sometimes shown with a scepter the symbol of kingship. The scepter is a representation of the Tree of Life just as is the caduceus. If we look at the representations of the Tree of Life in Urartu we see a scepter like shape resembling the scepter of Inanna. It is the scepter that associates Inanna with Eve. The gods and goddesses of ancient time have fallen into myth shorn of their power but the scepter still confers its power whether in royalty or the church. Even today in the 21st century this symbol from a time so remote, chronicled in the first written words, still maintains its original meanings of divinity and kingship. 

Inanna wears the horned cap of divinity as does Anu. She is one of the gods in the Sumerian pantheon. Various symbols are connected to her. The scepter, throne, a tree and a snake and of these the scepter, crown, tiara, and staff are connected to Anu. The rib story was borrowed from the Ninhursag saga a powerful Nodite female goddess. "The book of Genesis has more hints to this earlier epic [Atrahasis]. Ninhursag, who created the first "smarter humans" was celebrated by the Anunaki and she was given the title of "Nin-ti," or "Lady of life." Since early Hebrew has multiple meanings for the phrase "ti," meaning both "rib" and "life," the creation of Eve by Nin-ti yielded to the errant story of the first woman being created by Adam's rib (hence "the lady of the rib")."

Inanna has an elusiveness of not being connected to a definite male figure although in some of the epics she is married to Dumuzi, the shepherd. I think that this is indicative of her original ascension in status to a goddess from the time after the ancient establishment of Eden.  Eve has been placed in the Sumerian pantheon as Inanna, in the Assyrian pantheon as Aster and in the Egyptian pantheon as Isis. If we look at the symbol of Isis we see the ankh in which carries the root form of the scepter. In hieroglyphics the ankh simply meant "life". Even as Isis became Venus her scepter continues on perpetuating its power derived from a branch snapped from the Tree of Life originally grown in the soil of southern Mesopotamia.

"6. INANNA [ISHTAR], the highest ranking Goddess in the Pantheon, the Queen of Heaven. Her role transcended the bounds of the normal Pantheon, for she was not one the intruding Sumerian's divinities [emphasis added]. In the tale of Enki Ordering the Universe, Inanna grew angry as Enki announced the decrees called MES, assigning more than 160 Gods to their roles in the Universe. Inanna asked what he intended to give her, and he responded by giving her all that was left over. By way of this bequest, and as daughter of the Moon, Inanna took over the female related powers usually associated with the Moon. She became the Goddess of FERTILITY and of strong emotions such as LOVE and HATE.

Inanna did not need Enki's permission to be All that she was. Her power to confer upon a human King the legitimate right to rule the whole valley as KING OF KISH is evidence of her strength, but it did not stem from Enki's bequest. Kings loyal to intrusive theologies found it necessary to undertake a Ritual Marriage to Inanna in her sacred precincts, and in her city of Uruk, in order to make their rule legitimate in the eyes of the valley community, and to authenticate their claim to rule by Divine Right. Inanna was a dangerous WIFE to the Kings of Kish; her range of Powers included Fortune, and its opposite. Inanna's power stemmed from the antiquity of her presence in the valley. Earlier agricultural residents of the valley engaged in orchardry, chiefly dates, as well as traditional grain and vegetable farming. Fruits and grains made year-round living in the valley possible because they were relatively easy to store for use in the fallow phases of the year. Long before the Sumerians and Akkadians entered the valley, the riverside dwellers had already evolved some enduring responses to the Life Forces involved in the Fruiting of plants and the Preservation of their produce. The Life Force which allowed plants to set fruit and thus provide sustenance to man and beast, was DUMUZI. It is likely that he had a dynamic connection to water, for his Domain lay in that portion of the valley which intermingled with the fertilizing waters of the Rivers. His consort/wife was Inanna. She was the fertile soil and the Spirit which guarded the Storehouse: the mother/protector of the produce of the land.
There are several layers of mythic symbolisms embedded in the rituals and stories about Dumuzi and Inanna. It is tempting to see Dumuzi as Sweet Water and Inanna as the fertilized and Spiritual Earth. But by historic times, Sweet Water was the Domain of Enki; Inanna had become the Queen of Heaven with enormous power; while Dumuzi had taken on much of the character of the Egyptian Horus without the Horus' divinity. Dumuzi was the Spiritual husband of Inanna who descended into the body of an earthly king during his ritual marriage to Inanna, a ritual which conferred upon the King the Divine Right to rule all he could conquer for so long as he could keep it."

Indo European Traditional ViewIndo European Anatolia BirthplaceIndo European Altaic originsTo the left are three maps explaining the origin of the Indo-European language. The first is the traditional view that the language had its origin in a general area north of the Caucasus mountains between the Black and Caspian Seas . From there people speaking the earliest Indo-European language migrated both into Central Asia and Europe. The second map illustrates the first migration of the language south into Iran, then north into Central Asia and finally turning back along the northern route into Europe. The last map just shows the location the major language groups. Note that no Indo-European is in Central Asia. Three quite different views on the origins and spread of Indo-European speech. None of these views support what the Urantia Book says and that is the Andites developed the language and it's genesis is in Central Asia most likely in the location now called the BMAC.

Andite area with Silk Road mapFor a comparison, this map shows Andite expansion with a simplified map of the silk road overlaid upon it. Not all routes are shown. It has a very strong east to west orientation and most likely is our best guide to earlier migrations. Between Bactria and the Tarmin Basin lie the Pamirs also known as "the top of the world". Even here are examples of the Tree of Life. The BMAC is shown in red. Language would follow the trade routes.

Other Symbols and Concepts Related to the Tree of Life


"In some cases the snakes seem to grow out of the top of the wand and this seems undoubtedly a later form, related to the Greek caduceus … When the evident connection between the coupled snakes and the Tree of Life is considered and the substitution of the tree for the caduceus by Assyrian art, one is driven to the conclusion that the wood of the wand, so carefully detailed on the Gudea vase, is the trunk of the Tree of Life.

It is worth while remarking that the Winged Globe was sometimes borne as a standard at the end of a staff …, in the manner of the Caduceus and the Assyrian ensign."

"From a purely folkloric angle, it is impossible to ignore an odd fact that one finds in nearly every culture and throughout history: not only are staffs and serpents generally associated, but the juxtaposition or combination of the serpent and the bird symbols is almost always profoundly meaningful. That meaning, except in rare exceptions (which actually seem to prove the rule) is always positive, associated with healing, wisdom, and transcendence. The symbol of serpent and bird is typically reserved for powerful mythic figures, humans of unusual distinction (like shamans and mystics), or for royalty, who are often considered of divine origin.

Earlier, in Sumerian and Akkadian representations of the axis mundi (the axis on which the world spins), one finds a pair of serpents criss-crossed over the rod."

"The oldest available evidence suggests that the caduceus comes from ancient Sumer during the late 3rd millennium BC. A cylinder seal from 2,200 BC, entitled The Serpent Lord Enthroned, shows the deity in human form sitting on his throne before a smoldering altar bordered by caduceus emblems, less the pole. Another seal from the late third millennium reveals a male figure sitting on a throne. Opposite him is a female figure, and between them, a tree heavily laden with fruit. Next to the female figure, in familiar “S” pattern writhes the serpent Nabu, the god of intellectual activity, wisdom and writing. In the oldest recorded story known to mankind, The Epic of Gilgamesh, the serpent springs from a well, eats the ‘plant of youth’, sloughs off its skin and disappears again, robbing the hero of his chance at immortality. Although no editorial provides meaning for the snake’s theft of the plant, it is clear from the story that the serpent became immortal by doing so, and Gilgamesh did not. And finally at his death, Gilgamesh’s family and friends weighed out their offering to the gods. And among them were Ningizzida, the god of the serpent, the lord of the Tree of Life, to whom they offered bread."



Axis Mundi and the World Tree

The Mayas
axis mundi is a term for the center or axis upon which the world revolves. It is a vertical column connecting the heavens, the earthly plain and the underworld. In Babylon Marduke's temple Ensagil was considered the location of the axis mundi. In other words Ensagil represented the center of the world. Not only that but it was constructed over the place where life originated and the first humans were created (by Marduke). On this vertical column were also located the heavenly temple of An and the underworld temple of Ea - three temples aligned vertically upon one another. More interestingly the axis mundi is also represented by the world tree or a sacred tree. This tree was supposedly planted by Inanna. Previous to Babylon the axis mundi was resident at Nippur whose god was Enlil one of the highest gods of the Sumerian pantheon. This concept of a world tree has been copied into other cultures around the world. The following quote is astounding considering it is from the Mesoamerican Mayas:

"In Mesoamerican theology, the world tree grew at the locus of creation, all things flowing out from that spot into four directions. The tree thus forms part of what Mircea Eliade refers to as the "symbolism of the center." The center is, first and foremost, the point of "absolute beginning," where the latent energies of the sacred world first comes into being. 8 The source of all creation was often seen as a vertical axis, or axis mundi, which stands at the center of the comos and passes through each of the three major layers of existence - underworld, terrettrial plane, and the sky.

On public monuments, the oldest and most frequent manner in which the [Maya] king was displayed was in the guise of the World Tree.... This Tree was the conduit of communication between the supernatural world and the human world. The souls of the dead fell into [the underworld] along its path; the daily journeys of the sun, moon, planets, and stars followed its trunk. The Vision Serpent symbolizing communion with the world of the ancestors and the gods emerged into our world along it. The king was this axis and pivot made flesh. He was the Tree of Life."

There is a famous sarcophagus lid with a classic Mayan image of the Mayan king Pacal. On it the king is shown descending into the earth the underworld. Directly above the king is the cross shaped Tree of Life. There are many similarities between this Mayan Tree of Life and the Mesopotamian Tree of Life. Both reference: the four cardinal points of the compass, support the sky, have the three realms of sky (branches), earth (trunk) and underworlds (roots). Both are the axis mundi and the world tree. The Mayan cosmic tree was the conduit by which the dead ascended to heaven and descended into the underworld. And as with the Babylonian concept of kingship the Mayan was also seen as the very embodiment of the axis mundi. It was alive with sacred energy and had mirror symbols indicating that the tree had a brilliance and power.

"The civilisations of Central and South America do not appear to have been as ancient as those of Mesopotamia and Egypt, but there is plenty of evidence to suggest that some cross-pollination of culture occurred, possibly via such sea-faring nations as the Phoenicians, or even the Sumerians. As amazing as it may seem, some artefacts that have been unearthed in Bolivia, in the vicinity of Lake Titicaca, are inlaid with cuneiform script that seems to be of Proto-Sumerian extraction (4). This has lead some scholars to seek a controversial link between the Mesopotamian culture 5000 years ago and South America.

We may never know for sure whether there is a basis for historical fact here, partly because of the almost wholesale destruction of the indigenous cultures by the Conquistadors, and partly because of the potential for hoaxed archeological finds. Little has remained to enlighten academics and archaeologists about the early mythological sources, and controversial archaeological finds that run against the grain of orthodox thought tend to be side-lined or ignored by academics keen to maintain their credibility. Then there was the purging of the Church. The genocide that took part in those early days of European colonial conquest ran in parallel with a purist drive to eradicate ancient pagan knowledge. Even if the ancients of South and Central America knew of Nibiru, how could we find out? "

Celestial Bird MayanThere are more similarities between the Mayan and the Sumerian story of the Tree of Life which includes the bird symbol that hovers above. In Sumer this is the winged disk. In the Norse religion it is an eagle. In the Mayan religion it is the Itzamna bird. This bird has a number of names such as the Bird of Heaven, the Celestial Bird, the bird of the upper world and the Principal Bird Deity. The illustration to the left show the highly stylized Itzamna bird from the sarcophagus perched atop the Tree of Life. The B&W line drawing more easily shows the bird standing on the Tree. Note the two genii flanking the Tree of Life in true Mesopotamian style. From the kneeling figures issue the fresh waters just as the waters pour from Enki. The kneeling posture with the out reached hand can also be found in Mesopotamian art. Even the fruit is pine cone shaped but is most likely based on maize just as it is represented in east Indian art. At the very bottom is the god of death in the netherworld. Click on both for a larger size.

Sun Disk Bird"This symbol is similar to those found in the murals of the ancient Mayan city of Teotihuacan, Mexico depicting the "quetzal bird² with a sun-disk shield on the front of its body. The Quetzal symbolized the movement of Creation and the will of the Creator come to earth."   (

Inca CrossThe Mayan Tree of Life is a cross and carries the same symbolism as does the Tree of Life in Mesopotamia. The cross to the left is of Inca origin and although it may not look like the Tree of Life it does represent many of the World Tree attributes. Included would be the four cardinal points of the compass, the three levels of existence (the heavens, the earth plane and the underworld) and the center hole being the axis mundi with its association with the shaman's cosmic corridor and access to the gods. This hole in the cross was also the portal for the soul to travel to heaven and then down into the underworld to be reborn again. Also as the axis mundi it represents Cusco the heart of the Incan empire. It is known as the Inca Cross and as the Chakana.

Andites to PeruThe Andites not only carried civilization to Egypt but a small number sailed to South America. “One hundred and thirty two of this race, embarking in a fleet of small boats from Japan, eventually reached South America and by intermarriage with the natives of the Andes established the ancestry of the later rulers of the Incas.”  (Urantia Book p. 873)

Nazca, Caral and ChankilloBoth images are clickable. The larger one illustrates how the Andites set sail from Japan and ended their journey in Peru. At the time of their immigration sea levels were much lower and at that time many islands dotted the Pacific. If you go to Google Maps you can easily see where these islands were located. The smaller image shows where the earliest known South American city, Caral, was built. Another interesting aspect of this map is that the Nazca lines are just inland from the site where the Andites arrived. About Caral:

"In 2001, the oldest town in South America was officially announced. Dating to 2600 BC, it pushed back the date for the “first town” with one millennium. What is even more intriguing, is that the town of Caral has pyramids, contemporary with the Egyptian Pyramid Era....The ancient pyramids of Caral predate the Inca civilisation by 4000 years, but were flourishing a century before the pyramids of Gizeh…What is Caral like? The site is in fact so old that it predates the ceramic period. Its importance resides in its domestication of plants, including cotton, beans, squashes and guava. The absence of ceramics meant that these foods could not be cooked – though roasting was an option....All pyramids were built in one or two phases, which means that there was a definitive plan in erecting these monuments. The design of the central plaza would also later be incorporated in all similar structures across the Andes in the millennia to come – thus showing that Caral was a true cradle of civilisation. 

The discovery of Caral has therefore reintroduced a powerful enigma: at the same time, on two different continents, agricultural advancements created a new style of life. The available workforce that agriculture had created was reemployed in the construction of pyramids. This “template” is visible in Peru, Sumer and Egypt, all in the 3rd millennium BC. Coincidence, or evidence of design? Alternative researchers will certainly soon reopen this debate, but archaeologists steer well clear of it.

The other ancient city above along with Caral is Chankillo and its claim to fame is as the earliest solar observatory.
"At Chankillo, not only were there towers marking the sun's position throughout the year, but they remain in place, and the site was constructed much earlier – in approximately the 4th century B.C.

Chankillo"Archaeological research in Peru is constantly pushing back the origins of civilization in the Americas," said Ivan Ghezzi, a graduate student in the department of Anthropology at Yale University and lead author of the paper. "In this case, the 2,300 year old solar observatory at Chankillo is the earliest such structure identified and unlike all other sites contains alignments that cover the entire solar year. It predates the European conquests by 1,800 years and even precedes, by about 500 years, the monuments of similar purpose constructed by the Mayans in Central America."
Click on the image. The circle is the location of the observation tower. The solar markers are the backbone like ridge.

Norse mythology and the Yggdrasill
"Yggdrasill is an Ash tree, at the centre of all worlds. It is the World Tree of life and knowledge, and of time and space. On the highest branches sits an eagle, and twisted round its roots lies a snake, gnawing at the tree. The eagle and the snake hate each other. A squirrel runs up and down the tree, telling each in turn what rude things the other is saying!

Under the roots of the tree there is a spring of water called Mimir. If you drink from the spring, you will get wisdom and understanding. Odin thought it was so important to be wise that he gave one of his eyes for a drink from the spring. From that time on, he only had one eye, but he was the cleverest of the gods. He invented Runes, the Nordic system of writing. "

Textiles and the Tree of Life

the rug beltRug and Textile Design from Countries of the "Rug Belt"
To the left are the countries of the "Rug Belt". They stretch from modern day Turkey to western China on a central path that follows the earliest migrations of the Andites and the later appearing Silk Road. Within these textiles we find examples of the Tree of Life, the serpent (dragon) and the bird deity (phoenix). These images are from an ancient Turkish culture and have shamanistic origins. They come from Central Asia and a nomadic tradition. Most of Afghanistan and Turkmenistan are included in Central Asia.

"Rugs, like all other artifacts in traditional societies, perform not just utilitarian functions but store and transfer information on the world-outlook o f their creators. Rugs like other kinds o cultural texts (ritual, mythology, images, structures, etc.) retain archaic features which tie the culture of the Turks of Asia Minor with Turkish cultures [ethnic Turkic peoples] of other regions. These features testify to their common sources. Traces of ancient beliefs reflected in carpet patterns of the Turkish of Asia minor reveal their pre-Islamic, shamanistic origin. Turkish prayer rugs (namzliks) were usually intended to be a bridal dowry. Most of them are decorated with tree patterns.

Turkic peoples are also aware of an ethno genetic myth about mankind (Radlov, 1989, p 357) or as a shaman ancestor generating from a tree. The name of the forefather is Odun. In modern Turkish languages, this word means “firewood, log, timber”. In the connection it is tempting to draw a parallel between this name and the name of ”(W)odin, the head of the Scandinavian pantheon. The shamanistic character of this deity is beyond doubt. He is not only closely connected with a tree (he gets the runes after hanging on a tree as a sacrificial offer), he brings back to life the tree prototypes of the first human beings."

"Because of this evolutionary shuffle the meanings of many symbols, motifs and designs become lost and confused. The same iconography can mean very different things to similar peoples. In spite of this there do remain certain patterns that seem to survive this process. Some iconography seems to hold universal value to these people who primarily express themselves through woven textile arts.

Trees are a salient feature in the Middle East and Central Asia in particular. Trees and forests feature heavily in art, literature and myth. Frasers Golden Bough will convince anyone of the fertility aspect of trees. They grow from the dust of Mother Earth and reach to the sky. In fact trees and forests are often said to be the abode of gods or possess supernatural powers. Fertility, an extremely common human symbol dating into pre-history, is well and often represented by trees in the form of growth and re-growth. "

tree of life rug designThis image is often called the Tree of Life and may be represented in a variety of scales and pattern formations as well as flanked by a variety of other floral symbols and animals. The entire ensemble can be recorded to Sumerian times 3000 b.c.e. The probability these motifs are included in our artistic collective memory is possible. Although the rug pattern is indigenous to the Rug Belt, trees and the resulting symbolism have played a role in many cultures around the globe. This is conveyed via stories, myths, as well a pictorial representation in a variety of art forms." (

Baluch tree of life designThe Tree of Life design to the left is from a southern Iranian ethnic group named the Baluch. Notice that this design resembles the vine tree design found in Sumer and that the fruit at the ends of the branch also resemble the familiar football shape. It is quite interesting in that most designs are more abstract in appearance. The Baluch tribe is located in southern most Iran and adjacent to Pakistan where the Andites entered India as Aryan invaders.

shaman in treeAnother Baluch design is this shaman within a tree. On the next page this concept of the shaman/king/god within a tree is discussed. "Detail of fig. 7 depicting a shamanic image contained within the trunk of the tree. Seen holding trophies in either "hand", the arms appear more like wings than arms."  (
This shamanistic concept of the deity within a tree is a common theme. In the Siberian Ob-Ugrian religion it is believed that the Shaman come from trees.

dragon and phoenix
The Dragon & Phoenix"The image of the dragon and phoenix together, either in opposition or simply confronting each other in the design pool of pile weaving is an extremely old and archaic concept. This first image depicts an early Anatolian weaving, circa 1400 AD, a well known image with a stylized dragon on the bottom with an even more stylized phoenix above. (Fig. 39) The use of these dual images is well known in Tibet with these two beasts, representing the male/female (Emperor/Empress) or yin/yang aspects of life, cavorting with each other among the clouds."

tibet dragon and phoenixAnother image of the dragon vs. phoenix theme from Tibet. "A Tibetan carpet depicting the ever popular dragon/phoenix design, a pattern that is ubiquitous in Tibetan pile weaving. Early 20th century, Collection of Shirin & Giuseppe de Giosa."  The dragon and phoenix is just another name for the serpent and bird conflict. Read the Sumerian epic The Myth of Etana for the background story.

Hungary and the iconic world tree
"The "tree of life" or "world tree" is also a very common motif in Sumerian and in many other traditions, but especially in the northern Mesopotamian Hurrian religion. It is also common in many early Shamanistic religions of the far north, as the connection between heaven and earth and the axle of the world. It is beautifully illustrated in a most Sumerian like form on a wall fresco, from the royal hall of the old Hungarian king's castle in the city of Esztergom, Hungary."

"The heavely origin of kingship is already attested in the earliest Mesopotamian cultures. In both Sumerian and Babylonian mythology, it is expressed allegorically with the image of a tree planted upon earth by the mother goddess, Inanna/Ishtar. The sacred tree, usually represented in the form of a stylized palm tree growing on a mountain, is the most common decorative motif in Assyrian royal iconography.

A cosmic tree growing in the middle of the world and connecting heaven with earth was the best imaginable visual symbol for the king's pivotal position as the focal point of the imperial system and the sole representative of god upon earth. When seated on his throne, the king... merged with the tree, thus becoming, as it were, its human incarnation. This idea is implicit in the fourth chapter of the biblical book of Daniel, in which the king of Babylon dreams of a huge tree growing in the middle of the earth, its top reaching the sky, and it told by the prophet: 'That tree, O king, is you.' (Daniel 4:10-22)"

For more information on Hungary, the Tree of Life, Shamanism and the Hurrians see page The Vanites linked below.

Babylonian "Stargate" the axis mundi
was the location of the axis mundi - the center of the world or the world axis.

"One of the most powerful Babylonian myths is the concept of the axis mundi or else known as the world axis, "navel of the world", the place of the connection between heaven and earth. The story of the axis mundi is chronicled in the Enumaelis [Enuma Elish] the so called epic of world creation. After Marduk had defeated his foes he is chosen by the gods to be their king. They erected a temple complex for him in Babylon which was centered at the intersection of two terrestrial axis with a central vertical cosmic axis that connects heaven and earth. "The gods built their king's residence from which all life ultimately originated and upon which Marduk himself was born and all humans were created [a.k.a. Adam and Eve]." In the new year's celebration of Marduk by the Babylonian kings, the yearly ceremony was carried out on a "primeval hill". The king stood on a pedestal, the locus of multidimensional cosmic cross hairs, in which he merged with Marduk the king of the gods. Both flowed into one another in a moment of prehistoric and present time, the mythical and the real, bound together within the vertical cosmic axis at the center of creation. "The Babylonian king then received from the hands of the gods the signs of power, which were actually of the gods but now were his own."

"The centripetal forces of the world-axis and the primeval hill not only aided the Babylonian kingdom, but were among its essential supports, State and kingdom understood themselves - as manifestly shown in the rituals of the new years celebration - as a part of the cosmic order which had been revealed to humans in the axis mundi."
(Paraphrased and quoted from:

"Sacred space is understood as a split in the homogeneity of profane space; this break builds an opening that allows a joint between separated cosmic spheres, between heaven, earth and underworld: sacred space is defined by this vertical dimension (axis mundi). The world is conceived as an extension around this axis, respectively the axis mundi is situated at the center of the world. The sacred mountain, the temple and palace, the sacred city are always the axis mundi, the connection of the cosmic dimensions. As center of the world, the sacred space contains a replica of the whole cosmos, it represents heaven, earth and underworld in a concrete form (imago mundi). Sacred space is the only conceivable dimension of life. In Eliade's thought sacred space is constantly connoted in an absolute positive way: it is cosmos, it is withdrawn from the chaos by divine intervention: ..."

"The Enuma Elish is a Babylonian or Mesopotamian myth of creation recounting the struggle between cosmic order and chaos. It is basically a myth of the cycle of seasons. It is named after its opening words and was recited on the fourth day of the ancient Babylonian New Year's festival. The basic story exists in various forms in the area. This version is written in Akkadian, an old Babylonian dialect, and stars Marduk, the patron deity of the city of Babylon. A similar earlier version in ancient Sumerian has Anu, Enil and Ninurta as the heroes, suggesting that the story was adapted to justify the religious practices in the cult of Marduk in Babylon."
( Dennis Bratcher:

"Early Sumerian and Akkadian artifacts (circa 2500 BC) show pictures of a pole or tree which is called the "axis mundi " - the world axis.  It is the shaft that runs through and supports the world.  Guarding this tree or pole is a snake or pair of intertwined snakes."

gudea vase The Gudea Vase
"On exhibit in the Louvre is a green libation vase, which was excavated from the ancient Mesopotamian city of Lagash.  The inscription on it, from King Gudea of Lagash circa 2025 BC, is a dedication to Ningizzida.  Also on the vase is an image of two entwined snakes on a rod.  Some have dated the vase as far back as 4000 B.C. The rod is most likely to be Axis Mundi, the world tree, Yggdrasil, the tree of life.  Ningizzida, a fertility god, was also known as 'Lord of the Tree of Life'.  He was often depicted as a serpent with a human head, and later became a god of healing and magic.  His companion was Tammuz/Dumuzi, who personified the creative powers of spring [19] (like the Greek Maia)."

line art Gudea vase"The Tree of Life had also been linked with the serpent or dragon (winged serpent) for over 1,000 years before Genesis was written. In 2025 BC the cup of the Sumerian King Gudea of Lagash (see Chapter 5, Fig. 22) showed two winged dragons holding back a pair of opening doors to reveal a caduceus of uniting snakes, the incarnation of the god Ningizzida, one of the names given to the consort of the mother goddess, to whom the cup is inscribed: ‘Lord of the Tree of Truth’." 

"In northern Babylonia the goddess of the Tree of Life was called the ‘divine Lady of Eden’ or Edin, and in the south she was called the ‘Lady of the Vine’, an understandable change of name given that the Sumerian sign for ‘life’ was originally a vine leaf.(10) However, in the myth of Eden, where there is no unifying image of a goddess, there is significantly also not one tree but two trees, or, it could be said, the one tree has become two, and now the fruit of both of them is forbidden. In earlier mythologies the one tree offered both ‘knowledge’ and ‘life’, or ‘wisdom’ and ‘immortality’ [as in Fig.1]. Here, knowledge of good and evil is split apart from eternal life, so that a perception of duality is rendered absolutely antithetical to a perception of life’s unity.(11) Campbell comments that: ‘The principle of mythic dissociation, by which God and his world, immortality and mortality, are set apart in the Bible is expressed in a dissociation of the Tree of Knowledge from the Tree of Immortal Life.’(12)" (

The above quote is interesting in that the same inscription on the Gudea vase has been translated in two different ways - Tree of Life/Tree of Truth. This may shed light on the problems of translation today. What this is saying is that both the Tree of Life and the Tree of Knowledge were one in the same. This is derived from the Genesis 2:9 account: "And out of the ground the Lord God made to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food, the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil". This statement is interpreted as both trees growing in the center of the garden. Since only one tree can actually occupy the center the second tree must be an additional attribute to the Tree of Life.

The Mes and Huluppu Tree
As the above text demonstrates there is a question of was there one or two trees in the garden. The question of the Tree of Knowledge can be answered in my opinion by revisiting what the Sumerians wrote. The Sumerian sacred tree must have had two names the mes (pronounced may) and Huluppu. This dichotomy of having two names for the same tree has resulted in confusion regarding the Tree of Knowledge as a second tree.

The Huluppu tree is mentioned in the Sumerian epic Inanna and the Huluppu Treewhich begins with a creation story and continues quickly on to Enki planting the tree by the Euphrates River. Inanna finds the tree after it was uprooted and plants it in her "holy garden." Later a bed and a throne were fashioned for Inanna from the tree by Gilgamesh. The throne and the (marriage) bed are symbols of Inanna's domain of kingship. So the term Huluppu was the name for the Tree as it relates to Inanna and would be the Tree of Life.

In the Sumerian epic Enki and the World Order the word usumgal is used to describe Enki which means "great serpent" or "dragon." He plants the mes-tree in Eridu. In ancient traditions the serpent was considered wise and knowledgeable. "Be ye therefore as wise as serpents..." (Matt 10:16) Enki's domain is in part related to knowledge as in his being the keeper of the mes - the decrees of civilization. His association with the sacred tree is mainly that of the mes-tree. I do not find it a coincidence that he is associated with the mes and the mes-tree. It is the concept of the mes-tree that has become the Tree of Knowledge. Therefore the Huluppu and the mes-tree represent the Tree of Life in the Sumerian epics and both Enki and Inanna have legitimate claims on in through two different cultures and time frames. 

Vision Serpent as EnkiThe picture to the left is Mayan. Within the oval is a human face which is inside the mouth of a serpent. This serpent is known as the Vision Serpent. The square inset is another example of this serpent. This concept just on its own is quite extraordinary but what is included with this sculpture makes it even more so. Click on the image for a larger view. Included are the symbols for the sun god Shamash (with the hub), the Goddess symbol of the rosette and the symbol for the moon. Pure Mesopotamian symbolism which is, of course, Andite. Except for the moon god Sin these symbols of Inanna, Shamash/Utu, the serpent and Enki as the god of knowledge all relate to Eden. This trail just does not seem to quit, does it?

Etymologists do not know what the mes-tree or the Huluppu tree actually means. Some of those who work with these epics comment that biblical accounts of this nature are based on the earlier Sumerian texts. That is these seemingly improbable stories are myth. This site sees it as that both biblical and Sumerian texts are referring to the same events, personalities and places in antiquity. That is these seemingly improbable stories are true.

The trail from Mesopotamia may also be found in the Andean mythologies of the Inca. The Inca worshiped the Earth goddess Pachamama and the sun god Inti with Viracocha as top creator god. The sun god Inti had a sister who was Mama-Kilya the moon. They also worshiped a feathered serpent god who was Viracocha and is also known to the Mayas as Kukulkan and Quetzalcoatl by the Aztecs. Other beliefs about this god would include the teaching of the arts of civilization, agriculture, the calendar and from the sea he came and to the sea he returned. The religious and social center of Inca life was in the large fortress called Sacsahuaman. It was home of the Inca Lord and the site of the Temple of the Sun. The Inca calendar was both solar and lunar. Mayan drawings of Kukulkan are said to resemble the Enki depictions from Sumeria. Within the Mayan pantheon he (as Kukulkan) was considered one of three gods who created the earth and was a twin brother to one of the other gods, Tezcatlipoca (his evil twin). The ancient Temple of Kukulkan of the Mexican Mayans is called El Castillo at Chichen Itza. 

This image is from Bolivia and may relate to the allusion of Enki Mesopotamian-like images of the Mayans. I have seen no images like that. If they exist they do not seem to have been published. The metal artifact is from the collection of Father Crespi in Ecuador. It is so remarkable that it could be fake but that cannot be confirmed as it is missing from the collection which is stored at the Central Bank of Equador. But a ceremonial bowl from the area of Lake Titicaca has proto Sumerian writing carved into it. The bowl is called the Fuente Magna. The local Aymara language in Bolivia has a number of root words considered as Semetic. (The Sumerians were not Semetic but the Akkadians were. It was the Akkadians who first conquered the Sumerians.) Artifacts can be faked but indigenous spoken language cannot.
More on this subject can be found on

Another site takes a different tact to this question of Sumerian visitation in terms of mining tin for the production of bronze. Although I am no fan of this site it still has some interesting things that contribute to this South American Sumerian/Andite mystery. The list of seemingly Mesopotamian influences continues to grow including religion, architecture, metallurgy, measurment, writing, art, language and legends.

The five holy symbols of Mesopotamia

They would be the moon god Nanna (Sin in Akkadian) a crescent shape, the sun god Utu (Shamash in Akkadian) as a star shape, the winged disk, the horned cap of divinity and a symbol for representing the Tree of Life. This Tree of Life symbol is sometimes represented as only two "branches" rather than the more familiar group of three. This symbol occurs within a variety of styles. Finally there is a symbol of 6 to 7 spheres that may represent the seven stars of the seven main gods (the Pleiades were thought to be the seven gods together as a group).

If you look closely at their winged disk in the picture below you will see a cross within a circle. This is the sign of Anu and perhaps some would claim the mark of Cain. It continues down to the present day. If you look at some of the Christian icons you will see the cross in the circle as in the halo of Christ. This particular halo is known as the Cruciform Halo.

halo of Christ
These holy symbols did not disappear with the ancient Assyrians. Two of them, the star and the crescent moon are well known symbols today. They are the symbols associated by westerners of Islam and is the motif in the Turkish national flag. The star and crescent symbols were very potent being pan-Mesopotamian and multicultural during those ancient times. They are probably the two most important symbols, at least they are the most enduring. The solar and lunar cycles were very closely observed from deep within the Paleolithic and measured by stone circles from the Neolithic.

The Cross in the Circle

the circular shape of the sun which emphasizes the ever recurring cyclical nature of the seasons is the origin of this neolithic symbol. It combines a cross within a circle and is the simplest conceivable representation of the union of opposed polarities. probably the oldest symbol in the world, it appeared in asian, american, european, and indian art from the dawn of history."

Rosy Cross "In symbolic form, the Rosi-crucis [symbol for the holy grail] was the original and longest standing mark of sovereignty – and this is where the secondary Rosy Cross definition comes into play, for this insignia was indeed a red cross within a ring. The early Bible writers condemned this royal device as being the Mark of Cain."

In the above statement, this mark being condemned by earlier Bible writers was not documented on the web site. No information was given as to where this statement came from. However, this same red cross is the symbol that the crusaders had emblazoned on their shields. This is part of the Merovigian kings myth of claiming they were part of the bloodline of Jesus through the lineage of Cain. Where ever the early church fathers encountered this symbol it may in fact be the "mark of Cain" or as I would put it the "mark of Eden". A mark put on Cain would be tribal and that would be Edenic. This would be a mark well understood by everyone within the vicinity. This is truly an old symbol from the time before recorded history. Actually I backed into this subject by investigating why Enki (Van) was connected with water. Here are the points I considered why water was important in connection with Enki "Lord Earth".

Enki's home is in the Abzu, the underground sweet water abode. It is also the location of his subterranean palace in the Axis Mundi, the pivot upon which the world turns. In the Babylonian epic Atrahasis it is where Marduke creates the first humans. Babylon was located in or very near the Garden of Eden.

Enki lives under the world tree in the Abzu from which his sweet water flows into the world.

Genesis 2:10
"Now there was a river issuing out of Eden to water the garden, and from there it began to be parted and it became, as it were, four heads."
Four rivers flowed out of the Garden of Eden in which the Tree of Life grew at its center.

"According to Mesopotamian myths, the god of freshwaters, Enki, who dwells in the freshwater abyss at Eridu, is the "single source" of all the world's rivers,..."

"Enki's "Sea-house mansion" is shown [below] as a cubicle within the depths of the imaginary freshwater ocean which lies under the earth. Note the FOUR STREAMS surrounding this cubicle, showing it lies under water, in the Abyss."

"Enki's Sea-house or Abyss dwelling is located in e.din, at Eridu in Sumer, where he has a fruit-tree garden by his
shrine, which is worked by man which he has created to be an agriculturalist to tend and till this garden, relieving the Igigi gods of this toil at Eridu."

"Enki then summoned Utu, the Sun God and Light of the Day. Together, they brought a mist from the depths of the earth and watered the whole face of the ground. Then Enki and Utu created waterways to surround the land with a never-ending source of fertile Sweet Waters, and Enki also devised basins and cisterns to store the waters for further needs. From these fertile sweet waters flow the four Great Rivers of the Ancient World, including the Tigris and the Euphrates." From the Sumerian myth ENKI AND NINHURSAG

enki and four rivers enki with four rivers enki with four rivers

The above three images show Enki associated with four rivers. So how does all this relate to the "mark of Eden"? According to Sumerian mythology Enki is the source of all sweet water (as opposed to salt water). The water flows from Enki and in some images of Enki he is shown with four rivers flowing from him. He lives in the Abzu the source of his sweet waters. His temple is beneath the world tree. Genesis states water flowed from Eden into four rivers. The world tree is the axis mundi located at the center of a terrestrial "X". Four rivers therefore issue from the axis mundi which houses Enki's palace in the Abzu. The Sumerians pictured the world as a flat disk which was encircled by fresh water. This is the cross in a circle. The circle represents the Sumerian known world. The "X" represents both the location of the Axis Mundi at the center of the world as well as the four rivers from which all sweet waters originate. The Axis Mundi, the world tree, represents the Tree of Life that grew at the center of the Garden of Eden. Of all the gods of the Sumerian pantheon it is Enki who interacts the most with Inanna. And this is why I believe that the cross in the circle symbol is the "mark of Cain" or as I interpret it as the "mark of Eden". This symbol is still with us today. The image below is of a modern shaman's totem pole. Note the cross in the circle on the pole. This pole represents the axis mundi.

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axis mundiThe image to the left is very interesting. It shows the Tree of Life with a serpent wrapped around the trunk. Four rivers are issuing from the base of the tree to a circle of water surrounding the illustration. At the bottom is Enki's palace in the Abzu. You can click on the image for a larger size. This is the only time I have seen all these elements in one picture.

Petroglyph of cross in the circleThis picture is of a petroglyph, rock art, showing two cross in the circle images above a line of men. It is hard to date this type of art but it is most likely Nordic Bronze Age (about 1,000 BC). These spoked wheels are sometimes called sun disks.

The illustration at the top of the page is a re-creation of a paneled hallway from a palace in Urartu in which
hundreds of the iconic image of the Tree of Life were painted in the same manner as the palace of

king Ashurnasirpal II and the later temple of king Solomon.

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